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职称英语考试辅导课件语法班讲义第一部分词类

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第一部分 词类

  英语中的单词可以根据词义、句法作用和形式特征分为十大词类:

词类

英语名称

作 用

例词

名词

Noun
(缩写为n.)

表示人或事物的名称

the Party
China

代词

Pronoun
(pron.)

用来代替名词、形容词或数词等

he
that

数词

Numeral
(num.)

表示数量或顺序

one
first

形容词

Adjective
(adj.)

用来修饰名词,表示人或事物的特征、性质

safe
great

副词

Adverb
(adv.)

用来修饰动词、形容词或其他副词,表示动作或性状的特征

hard
here


  续表

词类

英语名称

作 用

例词

冠词

Article
(art.)

用在名词前,帮助说明名词所指的人或事物

an, a
the

动词

Verb
(v.)

表示人或事物的动作或状态

eat
have

介词

Preposition
(prep.)

用在名词、代词等前面,说明句子中词与词之间的关系

under
in

连词

Conjunction
(conj.)

用来连接词、短语或句子

and
but

感叹词

Interjection
(interj.)

表示说话时的感情或口气

hello
why


句子成分


  英语的句子成分一般包括主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语、补语、同位语等。
  1.主语(Subject)
  主语是句子的主体,是句子所要说明的人或事物。如:
  He works in a big company.
  To drive car needs some knowledge of its performance.
  Advertising is a way of bringing information to the public for the purpose of selling a product.
  Whatever was said here must be kept secret.

  2.谓语(Predicate)
  谓语说明主语“做什么”、“是什么”或“怎么样”。如:
  I have read "Romance of the West Chamber".
  Silent words of love are passing between us.
  We should promote our friendship on such a basis.
  They are dancing.

  3.宾语(Object)
  宾语表示动作的对象,是主语的动作的承受者。有宾语的动词称为及物动词。如:
  Trust the students.
  Don't have anything more to do with him.
  — How many do you need? — We need ten.
  They are planning to see the sights of Chongqing tomorrow.
  He dreamt of meeting and falling in love with a beautiful woman.
  You will find the pain easing up in a few hours.
  We must find out who signed the contract.

  4.定语 (Attribute)
  定语是用来修饰名词或代词的。如:
  There is some exciting news on the newspaper today.
  Every Saturday Mr.Black goes to the supermarket to do shopping.
  See the statement above.
  The faded flowers covered the ground.
  It's a firm that specializes in hand-made furniture.

  5.状语 (Adverbial)
  状语是用来修饰动词、形容词、副词的,表示时间、地点、原因、方式、程度等。如:
  Accounting is one of the fastest growing fields in modern business world.
  To explain the difference briefly, the accountant sets up a bookkeeping system.
  Personally, I hope you will make a holiday tour with me.
  He was disappointed because his love of her was unrequited with cold contempt.
  Seeing this, they became very worried.
  Taken in time, the medicine will be quite effective.

  6.同位语(Appositive)
  同位语用来对一个词或词的内容加以补充和说明。它通常位于其说明的词或词组之后。如:
  We Americans are hard-working.
  You two are very lazy.
  Winston Churchill, Britain's Prime Minister during the Second World War, died in 1965.
  Shanghai, once the paradise for adventurers, is now the largest industrial base in China.

  7.补语 (Complement)
  英语中有些及物动词虽然有了宾语,但句子的意思仍不完整,还需要在宾语之后增加一个成分以补足其意义,这种成分叫宾语补语。如:
  They appointed him head of the department.
  They painted the wall blue.
  People regard the sun as the chief source of heat and light.

名词


  名词通常指人、事物以及抽象概念等的名称。
  名词的种类可从两个方面划分:
  1.根据词汇意义,可分为普通名词和专有名词。
  2.从是否可以计数的角度来看,英语名词又可分为可数名词和不可数名词。
  老师手写内容:
  the Great Wall 长城
  Japan 日本

  可数名词有单、复数之分。单数名词变为复数形式时,又有规则和不规则之分。
  (1)规则复数形式
  规则复数形式有以下几情况:
  ①flowers,sisters, machines,months
  ②buses,boxes,watches,dishes
  ③countries,factories,stories
  ④knives,shelves,lives
  ⑤tomatoes,potatoes,heroes

  (2)不规则复数形式
  凡不是以加-s、-es构成复数形式的名词,称不规则复数名词。
  常见的不规则复数名词主要有:
  man─men woman─women
  child─children ox─oxen
  foot─feet tooth─teeth
  mouse─mice goose─geese
  phenomenon─phenomena thesis─theses
  analysis─analyses crisis─crises
  basis─bases bacterium─ bacteria
  deer─deer means─means
  aircraft─aircraft species─species
  series─series sheep─sheep

  (3)常用复数形式的名词
  有些名词经常以复数的形式出现,包括以下两种情况:
  a.由两部分组成一个物体的名词。如:
  服装:pants,pajamas,jeans,trousers
  器具:glasses,scales,pliers,tweezers

  b.其他名词,如:
  goods,spirits,stairs,wages,greens,suburbs
  不可数名词的个体化,如:
  apieceofpaper
  apieceofnews
  twotonsofsteel
  aflashoflight
  adropofwater
  threecakesofsoap
  a tube of tooth paste
  a spoonful of sugar
  a pair of glasses
  名词的可数或不可数并不是一成不变的,在一定条件下可以相互转化。如:
  Therearefewlambsinthezoo./ Would you like some lamb or pork?
  Theygrowtheirowncarrots./ Goodstew(炖菜)must containcarrot.
  Beerisrefreshinginsummer./ They had two beers.
  Richmenliveinluxury./ A refrigerator is a luxury here.

  英语名词有两种属格:’s属格和of-属格。如:
  1.’s属格的形式
  (1) baby’s, horse’s;
  (2) freshmen’s,firemen’s;
  (3)teachers’,theSmiths’;

  2.-’s属格的使用
  (1)thehorse’smouth, themanager’soffice, women’s clothes
  (2)the school’s enrollment,thegovernment’sproperty,
  Europe’sfuture
  (3)thetrain’sheatingsystem,theship’sbell
  (4)the earth’s surface,aday’s work,two hours’ drive, eight dollars’ worth, a pound’s weight
  (5)thebarber’s,thetailor’s, St.Peter’s , the baker’s, the dentist’s, the Smith’s

  3.of-属格的使用
  用于无生命的东西,表示所有关系,如:
  theendoftheroad
  thetopoftheshelf
  thesaleofthehouse
  ThecityofNewCastleliesatthemouthoftheNewCastleRiver.

  名词在句子中所作的成分有:
  1.主语
  Theboyiswriting.
  Tribes living today in the jungle of the Amazon teach botany to their children at school.

  2.动词宾语
  Theyarewritingletters.
  Today, people usually acquire a large amount of botanical knowledge from textbooks.
  3.间接宾语
  WhosentMs.Wangthisletter?
  Autobiography writers offer the reader a good look at the way they are and what makes them that way.
  4.宾语补语
  Hemadetheletteraninvitation.
  They use their bite to kill and eat and to gather information.
  Big factories could not exist without transport to carry the large number of workers to and from their homes.

  5.介词宾语
  Theletterisforhiscolleague.
  As a further incentive, they must be given a share in the company’s profit.
  6.表语
  Theletterisaninvitation.
  Kwanzaa is a very old holiday.
  7.同位语
  TheletterisforMs.Wang,hiscolleague.
  Botany, the study of plants, occupies a peculiar position in the history of human knowledge.
  8.定语
  Heisacustomsofficer.
  management specialist, family members

  9.状语
  Waitamoment.
  Barbie was born with the help of the technicians and engineers at Mattel.

代词


  代词是指代替名词及名词词组的词。英语中代词可分为人称代词, 物主代词、反身代词、相互代词、指示代词、疑问代词、关系代词、不定代词。
  人称代词是用来指代人的代词
  主格I you he she it we you they
  宾格me you him her it us you them
  如:
  Heisaworker.
  Thepolicefoundher.
  Thegiftisforme.

  物主代词有两大类:形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词
  形容词性:myouryourhisheritstheir
  名词性: mineoursyourshishersitstheirs
  如:
  Mypenishere.Where’syours?(=yourpen)
  Myanklehurts.
  John’sbrokenhisleg.

  反身代词多由物主代词加self或selves构成
  (1)一般用法
  Shecutherselfwhilecooking.
  Iaskmyselfthesamequestion.
  Idon’twanttotalkaboutmyselfanymore.
  Whydon’tyoubeyourself?
  老师手写内容:
  myself 我自己
  yourself 你自己
  himself 他自己
  herself 她自己
  itself 它自己
  ourselves 我们自己
  yourselves 你们自己
  (2)强调用法
  Imyselfdidit.(=Ididitmyself.)
  IwilltellBettyherselfwhatyoutoldme.

  相互代词表示动作所涉及到的事物之间。英语中有两对相互代词词组,即:eachother和one another。如:
  Theyloveeachother.
  HeandIarestudyingeachother’snativelanguage.
  Theyhelpeachother.
  Theathletesencouragedoneanother.

  指示代词有:this,that,these,those和such,它们既是限定词,又是代词。如:
  This/Thatismyhouse.
  These/Thoseareyourbooks.
  Comeandlookatthis/these.
  Such a good news made us very happy.
  Such was his idea.He only failed to make it clear.
  疑问代词有who,whom,whose,what,which等。
  (1)who和whom
  Whowantstoknow?
  Whoisit?
  Whomdoesshemean?
  Whomdidyougowith?
  (2)whose,which,what
  Whoserulerareyouusingnow?
  Whatareyoudoing?
  Whatsizedoyouwear?
  Whichdoyouprefer?

  关系代词用于引导定语从句。英语的关系代词主要有who,whom,which,that等。
  不定代词的用法比较复杂
  (1)each,every,all
  All the students attended the meeting.
  Every student has a copy of this book.
  She gave a bag of sweets to each.
  (2)both,either,neither
  Idon’tthinkeitherofthemknow/knows.
  Ithinkneitherofthemknow/knows.
  Both of them are college students.
  Either of them will do.

  (3)some(-thing,-body,-one),any(-thing,-body, -one)
  Somebody/Someoneiscoming.
  Isthereanybodywhowantstogotothemovietonight?
  (4)nothing,none
  Noneofherrelativesis/ arehere.
  Noneofthischinaisvaluable.
  There’snothingIcandoforyou.
  老师手写内容:
  nobody 无人,每人
  none 一个人也没有

  职称英语主要测试点举例:
  1)In 1830, the U.S.Congress passed a law.It allowed the government to remove Indians from their lands.
  2)Like football, basketball originated in the US and is not popular in other countries.Many Americans prefer it to football because it is played indoors throughout the winter and because it is a faster game.
  3)You’ve probably heard that no two snowflakes are alike.Of course, nobody has ever confirmed that statement.

  4)In Ontario, ask the dealer or seller for the Used Vehicle Information Package.This gives details of previous owners.Any outstanding liens on the car and the fair market value of the vehicle.
  5)A person may work from 12 midnight to 8 a.m.one week, 8 a.m.to 4 p.m.the next and 4 p.m.to 12 midnight the third and so on.
  老师手写内容:
  the next  下一个
  the third 第三
  second   第二
  week    周,星期
  6)The most common explanation is that great whites don’t see well.It has been thought that they mistake people for the seals or sea lions which make up a large part of their diet.

  7)We don’t know what our Stone Age ancestors knew about plants, but from what we can observe of preindustrial societies that still exist, a detailed learning of plants and their properties must be extremely ancient.This is logical.
  8)If rank-and-file workers are given a voice in the planning and management of the work flow, they will help to make improvements, their morale will rise, and their productivity will increase.As a further incentive, they must be given a share in the company’s profits.This can be done through employee stockownership plans, bonuses, or rewards for efficiency and productivity.

  9)Much like citizen journalists helping large publications cover a hyper-local beat, citizen scientists are ready for the conditions where they live.All that’s needed to become one is a few minutes each day or each week to gather data and send it in.

  10)Moreover, many women like men to open doors for them.They also like men to give up their seats on public transportation.However, some women do not like this type of behavior.

“It”的用法


  1.代词it
  (1)指除人以外的一切生物和事物。如:
  I hope it was as good as the one you lent me.
  I knew at once that it was a gift from Father.
  The more carbon the steel contains, the harder it is.

  (2)在某种情况下代词it也可以指人。这时可把it看作指示代词。如:
  Is it your brother?
  I didn’t know it was you.
  "Oh? who was it?" Mr.Black asked.
  (3)it用来表示自然现象、时间、距离等。如:
  It is nine sharp now.
  It is very hot today.
  It is far to the airport.

  2.it 作形式主语
  (1)做不定式的形式主语
  It’s nice to be with you.
  It’s not easy to get him to change his mind.
  Is it possible to go by bike?
  (2) that…句的形式主语
  It’s true that she’s ill.
  It seems obvious that we can’t go on like this.
  It occurred to me that she might have forgotten the date.
  It doesn’t interest me whether you win or not.
  It doesn’t matter when you arrive — just come.
  It wasn’t very clear what she meant.
  It’s surprising how many unhappy marriages there are.

  (3)作动名词的形式主语
  It was nice seeing you.
  It’s unusual her going off like that.
  It’s no use trying to explain—I’m not interested.

  3.it作形式宾语
  如果一个带有宾语补足语的动词不定式做宾语或一个宾语从句太长,可以用it作该不定式或宾语从句的先行词——形式宾语。如:
  George made it clear that he disagreed.
  She thinks it easy to understand a letter written in English.
  She found it difficult to get along with him.
  He felt it his duty to help her.

  4.用于强调结构中的it
  这种结构的句型是:It + is(was) + 被强调的部分 + that(或who)+ 其他部分。如:
  It is the force of gravity that makes heavy things fall toward the ground.
  It is from the sun that we get light and heat.
  It was the girl’s eyes that he had seen in the darkness.

  职称英语主要测试点举例:
  1)Traditionally, it has been the workers’ role to work and management’s role to manage
  2)It is natural and normal for language to change.
  3)It can take many days for a human body to accept the major change in work hours.
  4)In an age where science fact frequently overtakes science fiction, the writers may find it difficult to keep ahead of scientific advances.

  5)It is estimated that by 1996, 61 percent of American managers will be using some sort of electronic work station.
  6)It is believed that the Eskimos moved there from Mongolia or Siberia, probably crossing Bering Strait, named for Vitus Bering, the Danish sea captain who discovered Alaska on his voyage for Russia in 1741.

  7)It is true that manufacturing jobs have declined.It is also true that there has been growth in some low-paying service jobs.
  8)It was in 1945 that Ruth and Elliot handler joined with their close friend Harold Mattson to form a company that would be known for the most famous and successful doll ever created.

  9)It was in 1958 that the patent for Barbie was obtained.
  10)It is the neurohormone that controls our sleep and tells our body when to sleep and when to wake.

动词


  动词的种类
  动词是指表示动作和状态的词。
  动词可分为:及物动词、不及物动词、系动词、助动词和情态动词。
  1.及物动词
  Heiswritingaletter.
  Ismellflowers.

  2.不及物动词
  WelivedinLondon.
  Thewindowhasopened.
  3.系动词
  Heisastudent.
  Thatsoundsgood.
  Thechildseemsunhappyaboutit.

  4.助动词
  助动词通常有 be,do,have。如:
  Docomein,please.
  Idon’tfeelverywell.
  We have just finished the work.
  当be,do,have用作普通动词时,它们有一定的词汇意义。如:
  Ihaveonesister.
  Youcandoitasyoulike.

  5.情态助动词
  情态动词表示说话人对所说的话的态度和看法。
  CanshespeakArabic?
  Itmaywellrain.
  Peopleshouldn’till-treatanimals.
  Willyouhelpme,please?

  动词的时态
  一般时
  1.一般现在时
  Hegoestoschoolbybikeeveryday.
  Theearthgoesaroundthesun.
  Ithinkyouareright.
  用于一般现在时的时间状语有:
  usually,sometimes,always,often,ever,never,onceaweek,nowandthen,fromtimetotime等。

  2.一般过去时
  Iwasn’tinlastnight.
  Whenhewasachild,heoftenswamintheriver.
  3.一般将来时
  表示将来的时间状语,如tomorrow, nextmonth, nextweek等。
  I’llgotoseemygrandmothernextweekend.
  Theywillbemovingtoanewflatsoon.

  完成时
  1.现在完成时
  (1)现在完成时由“have(has)+动词的-ed分词”构成,表示到现在为止的一段时间内发生的情况或动作。如:
  Ihavecutmyfinger.
  I’vefinished my tasks.
  (2)动词的现在完成时也可以表示一个动作发生在过去,但一直延续到现在,并可能继续进行下去,这时常常与表示一段时间的状语连用。这类时间状语有now, today, thisweek,just,lately,uptonow,for和since引导的短语等等。如:
  IhavestudiedEnglishforfouryears.
  HehaslivedinShanghaisince1992.

  2.过去完成时
  Bytheendofthe(last) monthJackhadcollected more than a hundred foreign stamps.
  I had whitewashed the room when he came back from abroad.

  3.将来完成时
  They’llhavehittheyear’stargetbytheend of October.
  BynextmonthIwillhavestudiedGermanfor just twoyears.
  进行时
  1.现在进行时
  Theyarehavingmilitarytraining these days.
  Iamwaitingforthebus.
  Mygrandmotheriscomingtoseeme next week.
  She’scomingtomorrow.
  2.过去进行时
  Iwasreadinganovelwhenyoucamein.
  3.将来进行时
  Iwillbeworkinginthedepartmentstoreat this time nextweek.
  Shewillbetellingyouaboutitthisafternoon.
  

  完成进行时
  1.现在完成进行时
  Sheisill.She’sbeenlyinginthebed for two weeks.
  You’vebeensayingthatforfiveyears.
  2.过去完成进行时
  He told mehehadbeenwritingthepaper for one month.
  3.将来完成进行时
  Ishallhavebeenworkinghereinthisfactory for eight years by theendoftheyear.
  老师手写内容:
  have/has been v-ing 完成进行时
  lie       v.躺(过去式:lay 过去分词:lain)
  will      aux.将

  将来时
  1.现在将来时
  They’llfinishthejobaheadoftime.
  Theywillbemovingtoanewflatsoon.
  2.过去将来时
  Shesaidshewouldcomeback the next day.
  Everyeveningtheywouldtalk with the teacher.
  老师手写内容:
  will do  将要做什么
  come   v. 来
  go    v. 去
  move   v. 移动
  travel  v. 旅游
  often  adv. 时常,常常
  usually adv. 通常,经常

  动词时态练习:
  1.The problem ____ settled in a few days.
  A.will be     B.has been
  C.was       D.had been

 

『正确答案』A
『答案解析』考查将来时。问题几天内将会被解决。


  2.The workers in that country____ for better working conditions.
  A.had fought       B.had been fighting
  C.are fighting      D.will have fought

 

『正确答案』C
『答案解析』考查进行时。那个国家的工人现在正在为了更好的工作条件而战斗。


  3.Peter____ for a job for a month, but he hasn’t found any.
  A.has been looking    B.is looking
  C.looks          D.was looking

 

『正确答案』A
『答案解析』考查现在完成进行时。皮特找了一个月的工作,但是还没有找到。


  4.When they reach the top of the mountain, they ____ over five hundred meters.
  A.have climbed       B.climbed
  C.will have climbed    D.would have climbed

 

『正确答案』C
『答案解析』考查将来完成时。当他们到达山顶时,他们已经爬了500米。


  5.Tom ____newspapers when his mother came in.
  A.reads         B.is reading
  C.was reading      D.read

 

『正确答案』C
『答案解析』考查过去进行时。他妈妈进来的时候,他正在看报纸。


  6.Someone ____ my glasses. Who ____it ?
  A.has broken, did     B.has broken, had done
  C.has broken, has done  D.had broken, does

 

『正确答案』A
『答案解析』考查现在完成时和过去时。有人打破了我的眼镜。谁干的?


  7.The work was more difficult than we ____.
  A.expected        B.had expected
  C.has expected      D.were expected

 

『正确答案』B
『答案解析』考查过去完成时。这项工作比我们想像的要难。


  8.John Smith ____ a number of short stories before he died in 1960.
  A.had written      B.wrote
  C.has written       D.was writing

 

『正确答案』A
『答案解析』考查过去完成时。约翰·史密斯在1960年去世之前写了很多短片小说。


  9.They told me that by the end of the month they ____ in this house for 10 years.
  A.has lived        B.has been living
  C.will have lived     D.would have been living

 

『正确答案』D
『答案解析』考查过去将来完成进行时。他们告诉我,截止到月末他们已经在这个房子里住了10年了。


  10.I met him in the street the other day. We ____ each other for many years.
  A.have not seen      B.had not seen
  C.did not see       D.have not been seeing

 

『正确答案』B
『答案解析』考查过去完成时。有天我在街上碰见他。我们已经有好多年没有见了。

  

情态动词

  
  情态动词表示说话人的语气或情态,如请求、命令、愿望、能力以及可能性等,它有一定的词义,没有人称和数的变化。英语的情态动词有:
  can,could
  may,might
  must
  ought to
  shall,should
  will,would
  dare,dared
  need

  1.can, could
  (1)能,能够、会、可以
  Energy can be changed from one form into another.
  We can buy a car by installments.
  (2)许可
  You can (= may) go home now.
  (3)表怀疑,难以置信
  He couldn’t (can’t) be her father; he is too young.
  (4)could + have + p.p.
  He could have passed the exam.
  (5)be able to是can的同义结构
  Thus, we shall be able to determine the amount of alcohol burned.
  They have not been able to come.

  2.may , might
  (1)允许、请求
  Excuse me, may I have a glass of water?
  (2)可能,或许;用might语气更加不肯定
  These ideas may seem strange to you.
  He might get lost.
  (3)may (might) + have + p.p.表对过去的推测
  She may (might) have missed the bus.
  (4)表祝愿
  May all your dreams come true.
  May it be so.
  (5)be allowed to是may的同义结构
  You will be allowed to use this computer.

  3.must
  (1)必须,应该
  The auditor must conduct sufficient verification.
  (2)must not意为“不应该”,“不许”
  We must not be afraid of difficulties.
  — Must I return the book?
  —Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t.
  (3)must + have + pp 表对过去的推测
  I can’t find my umbrella. Someone must have taken it.
  (4)must + be + -ing 一定在…
  They must be talking about us now.
  (5)have to是must的同义结构
  We will have to change our plan.

  4.ought to
  (1)应该
  We ought to make the most of our time.
  (2)ought to + have + p.p. 表过去没完成的事
  She ought to have come to see me two days ago, but she forgot.
  (3)表推测
  This arrangement ought to please them.

  5.Shall
  (1)征求意见
  — Shall I close the door?
  — Yes, please. / No, please don’t.

  6.Should
  (1)应该
  A formal written appraisal should be prepared annually.
  (2)推测
  They should be home by now.
  (3)should + have + p.p. 表过去应做但没做的事,含有责备的意思。
  This conclusion should have been double-checked.
  (4)表愤怒,不满,失望
  I am very sorry that he should be so careless.
  (5)用于让步从句中
  He run away lest he should be seen.

  7.will
  (1)请求
  Will you lend me your dictionary?
  (2)自然规律,习惯动作
  Fish will die out of water.
  Water will boil at 100 degrees centigrade.

  8.would
  (1)委婉请求或命令
  Would you take a seat?
  (2)表过去习惯性动作
  He would sit there for hours, doing nothing.

  9.dare , dared
  (1)敢
  How dare you speak to me like that?
  No one dared speak of it.
  (2)有时后面跟不定式,用作行为动词
  He dares to think, to speak, and to act.

  10.need
  (1)“需要”,用于否定句和疑问句中
  — Need I show you my passport?
  — Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t.
  We didn’t need to call the doctor.
  (2)needn’t + have + p.p. 表本不必做
  She needn’t have watered the flowers.
  

被动语态

  
  构成:助动词be+及物动词的过去分词。
  为什么使用被动语态
  (1)当我们不知道或者没有必要说明谁是动作的执行者时,如:
  My watch has been stolen.
  On Saturday night, on her way home from work, she was robbed.
  (2)当我们要强调动作的承受者时,如:
  Qu Yuan is also remembered on this day.
  He will never be forgotten.
  (3)当出于礼貌,措词等方面的考虑不愿说出谁是动作的执行者时,如:
  You are requested to give a performance.
  老师手写内容:
  am,is,are   是
  was,were    是(过去时)
  have/has been + v-ed   被动语态的现在完成时态

  各种时态的被动语态
  (1)一般现在时
  All our shoes are made by hand.
  The article is retailed at a higher price than when it was bought wholesale.
  (2)一般过去时
  She was praised for her economical management of the budget.
  An urgent telephone call was made to the company’s treasure.
  (3)一般将来时
  You will be introduced to the office building.
  Will storekeepers be prosecuted for raising prices without government permission?
  (4)过去将来时
  She told me that her father would be taken to hospital the next morning.

  (5)现在完成时
  These trade terms have been developed by mercantile custom and standardized to a certain extent.
  (6)过去完成时
  They told him that the meeting had been cancelled.
  (7)现在进行时
  In some developed countries, children are being taught by computers.
  Computers are being used to predict the weather.
  (8)过去进行时
  The conversation was being recorded.
  The street was being widened.

  (9)动词不定式的被动结构
  A new study plan (work plan) has to be made.
  He will have to be tried for murder.
  老师手写内容:
  must aux.   必须,一定;可以,应当;很可能

  主动句表示被动含义
  及物动词need, want, require, deserve, bear等之后用动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。
  This issue requires dealing with great care.
  The new instruments want very careful handling.

  职称英语主要测试点举例:
  1)According to estimates, 800,000 hectares of its land area are fit for plowing but only about 640,000 hectares are being cultivated.
  2)Hundreds of books are published every year and are read by all kinds of people.
  3)Italy’s 30,000 hotels are booked solid every summer.
  4)Knowing how to solve problems is considered more important than the accumulation of facts.
  5)Personal income may be defined as total money income received by individuals before personal taxes are paid.
  6)In many countries more than a quarter of all deaths are caused by cancer.

  7)The social stability of the world is no longer threatened by global wars.
  8)The labor force should be informed of major policy decisions.
  9)Many kinds of stone are used as building materials.
  10)Some of the destruction is directly caused by the quake itself.
  老师手写内容:
  inform …of…   告知某人某事
  information   n. 信息
  

非谓语动词

  
  动名词: 动词原形+ing构成。
  1.作主语
  Interpreting figures is an important part of the accountant’s function.
  2.作表语
  His interest is reading novels.
  3.作宾语
  可以用在begin, start, stop, finish, like等动词后面。
  They haven’t finished packing the goods.
  He likes playing basketball.

  4.作介词宾语
  Take your time to balance the two plans carefully before arriving at a final decision.
  不定式:to+动词原形构成的。
  (1)作主语
  To have a firm self-confidence is a first step toward a successful negotiation.
  当不定式主语太长时,可用it作形式主语放在主语的位置,构成:It+谓语+不定式主语+其他成分。
  It is risky to build too many hopes upon his promise.
  It is impossible to get him to understand what I mean.

  (2)作宾语
  The supermarkets owner planned to postpone the grand opening until Saturday.
  (3)作表语
  His job was to examine cars to make sure that they were not smuggling anything into the country.
  (4)作定语
  The shopkeeper offered me a credit note to be used to buy goods in his shop.

  (5)作状语
  To improve business, the store owner decreased his prices.
  (6)带疑问词的不定式
  疑问代词who, what, which和疑问副词when, why, how, where的后面可以接不定式,构成一个名词性短语,可在句中作主语、表语、宾语或定语。
  What to do next will be discussed at today’s meeting.
  It is not decided yet whether to go there or not.
  The question is how to send the goods.
  You had better find out where to change your money.
  

  分词:包括现在分词和过去分词两类。
  现在分词由动词原形+“ing”构成。规则动词的过去分词由动词原形+“ed”构成。
  (1)作定语
  China is a developing country.
  It is a well-written article.
  (2)作表语
  This novel is very interesting.
  The theory sounds quite convincing.

  (3)作状语
  ①表示时间
  Having worked for three hours, she took a rest.
  Opening the drawer, he took out a book.
  ②表示原因
  Inspired by the teacher, the students studied even harder.
  ③表示伴随或方式
  Laughing and talking, the children went out into the garden.
  ④表示结果
  The bus was held up in the snowstorm, thus causing the delay.
  Last year the yield climbed again, reaching 1,300 kilograms.
  老师手写内容:
  After she had worked for 3 hours     工作了三个小时之后
  Because they were inspired by the teacher     因为他们受到了老师的鼓励

  (5)作独立主格
  All things considered, the commodities are the best in our firm.
  His work finished, he prepares to return to his company.

  职称英语主要测试点举例
  1)Tribes living today in the jungle of the Amazon recognize hundreds of plants and know many properties of each.
  2)The purpose is not only to provide fun but also to help people feel at home in the world of science.
  3)Rescuers have found the bodies of over 130 people killed in two ferry disasters in Bangladesh.

  4)Educators are beginning to think that maybe there is something yet to be learned from one-room schools.
  5)Considering that weddings do more than 12 billion dollars worth of business annually in the US alone, such activity isn’t surprising.
  6)Counting elephants from aeroplanes is impossible in the vast, equatorial rainforests of Central Africa.

  7)Saunas are relaxing and stress relieving.
  8)To meet these challenges and take advantage of these opportunities, the National Park Service has formed partnerships with other agencies.
  9)The biological clock tells animals and human beings when to eat, sleep and wake.
  10)Before long, many Cherokees knew how to read and write in their own language.
  

形容词和副词


  形容词:修饰名词或代词,表示人或事物的性质、特征或状态。形容词在句子中作定语、表语或宾语补足语。如:
  Once a rich woman invited Martin Brown, a famous singer, to her house.
  These ideas may seem strange to you.
  They keep their room clean.
  某些表示特征的形容词(如blind,dead,old,young,rich,poor,brave,wounded等)和定冠词连用从而名词化,可泛指一类人,在句中作主语、宾语等。如:
  The aged are well taken care of in our society.
  The departed was a good teacher in our department.

  副词:修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句,说明时间、地点、程度、方式等概念。副词在句子中大都作状语,也有一些副词作表语和定语。如:
  After a while a light smoke came slowly out of the jar.
  I must be off now.
  I met her on my way home.

  1.形容词的比较级和最高级

构成方法

原级

比较级

最高级

单音节词在词尾加-er([])或-est([ist])

high tall

higher taller

highest tallest

以字母e结尾的单音节词,只加-r或-st

large
wide

larger
wider

largest
widest

以重读闭音节结尾的词,如果末尾只有一个辅音字母,应先双写这个辅音字母,再加-er或-est

thin
big

thinner
bigger

thinnest
biggest

以辅音字母加y结尾的词,先把y变成i,再加- er或-est

happy

happier

happiest

少数以-er,-ow,-ble结尾的双音节词,末尾也加-er和-est或-r和-st

clever
low
able

cleverer
lower
abler

cleverest
lowest
ablest

多数双音节词和多音节词,在前面加more和most

difficult
   beautiful

more difficult
more beautiful

most difficult
most beautiful


  (1)形容词比较级用法
  I thought he was actually poorer than he really was.
  It is better to be silent than to speak.
  Reading is easier than speaking.
  老师手写内容:
  good   adj. 好的;优良的;愉快的;虔诚的
  better  adj. 较好的
  best   adj. 最好的
  easy adj. 容易的;舒适的
  (2)形容词最高级用法
  John is the oldest(youngest, strongest, weakest, smallest, cleverest) boy in the class.
  Peter is the fattest(thinnest, biggest)boy on the team.
  She is the liveliest(happiest, heaviest, ugliest, friendliest, healthiest, hungriest, prettiest, sleepiest)of us all.
  老师手写内容:
  lively   adj. 活泼的;生动的;真实的;生气勃勃的

  2.副词的比较级和最高级
  You can jump much higher on the moon than on the earth.
  She writes (the) most carefully of the three.

  3.形容词和副词比较等级的不规则变化

原级

比较级

最高级

good
well

better

best

bad(ly) ill

worse [w:s]

worst [w:st]

many
much

more

most

little

less

least

far

farther
further

farthest
furthest

old

older
elder

oldest
eldest

  老师手写内容:
  the former  前者
  the latter  后者

  4.比较级的一些特殊用法和其他用法
  (1) 有些形容词和副词的比较级和最高级有两种不同形式,它们在意义上也有所不同:

原级

比较级

最高级

old

older 较老,较旧(说明人的年纪大或事物的年代的久远)
elder 较年长(多用来区别人与人之间的长幼)

oldest 最老,最旧
eldest 最年长

late

later 较迟,后来(指时间)
latter 后者(和“前者”对比,指顺序)

latest 最近(指时间)
last 最后(指顺序)

far

farther 较远
further 较远,进一步

farthest 最远
furthest 最远(常用于引申意义,表示“更进一步的”,“深一层的”。)


  (2)在形容词和副词的比较级前,有时可以用much,a little,still,far,by far,even,no,any,a great deal等状语词来修饰,表示“更……”、“……得多”等程度意义。如:
  This is taking a little more time than we thought.
  He’s far better than his brother in English study.
  

  (3)表示甲与乙在某一方面程度相同时,用“as+形容词(副词)原级+as”的句型。
  a.两个as之间要用形容词或副词的原形,如:
  He is as tall as his brother.
  He runs as fast as his brother.
  They produce waste gases almost as harmful as the gases from factories.
  b.第二个as和其后的比较对象较远,出现了第二层比较级,如:
  John plays football as well as, if not better than, David.
  Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often as good as or better than an actual performance.

  c.as…as之间不止一个形容词,如:
  Whenever we need to be indoors, we want our surroundings to be as attractive and comfortable as possible.
  It is possible to make metal as hard or as soft as is wished.
  老师手写内容:
  as…as possible   尽可能…;尽量
  d.在形容词后出现附带成分,如as…to do…as to do…,如:
  Barnes has suggested that it is as proper to term the plant a water structure as to call a house composed mainly of brick a brick building.
  老师手写内容:
  call   呼叫;称呼;召集
  e.不同的喻体。如:
  He is as strong as a horse.
  He is as mad as March hare.
  He is as wet as a drowned rat.
  He is as poor as church mouse.
  He is as stubborn as a mule.
  The twin sisters are as like as two peas.

  f.as…as用于表示倍数的句型
  1)倍数 n.+ as…as
  在as…as前加上twice, three times等可以表示倍数。如:
  He is twice as old as she.
  There are three times as many people as we expected.
  This one is prettier, but it cost twice as much as the other one.
  老师手写内容:
  once       一倍
  twice      两倍
  three times   三倍
  pretty      adj. 漂亮的;可爱的;优美的
  2)倍数n+比较级+than
  比较:
  This box is four times as heavy as that one.
  This box is four times heavier than that one.
  Smokers had death rate almost two and half times higher than the death rate among those who did not smoke.

  (4)可用“…times+ 名词(代词)”,表示“是……倍”。如:
  He is twice my age.
  The output of plastic for 1977 was twice that for 1979.
  The nation’s grain output in 1986 was 3.4 times that of 1984.
  老师手写内容:
  than     比;超过
  as…as…   像…一样
  (5)可用“比较级+and+比较级”表示“越来越……”。如:
  But she looked at me and cried harder and harder.
  (6)可用“the+比较级+the+比较级”来表示“越……就越……”。如:
  They discovered that the farther away the feeding station was, the slower the dance was.

  职称英语主要测试点举例:
  1)This was 31 percent more than the farmer had received in 1959.
  2)The intensity of an earthquake is measured on the Richter Scale, which goes from 0 upward. The highest scale recorded to date is 8.9.
  3)The more easily goods can be brought over the distance, the better for trade.
  4)In the US and Canada alone, there are now more than 6000 museums, almost twice as many as there were 25 years ago.
  老师手写内容:
  once more than    比……多一倍
  5)Every summer, more than 25 million people travel to Mediterranean resorts and beaches for their vacation.

  6)Spain’s long sandy coastline attracts more people than anywhere else.
  7)Mediterranean is already one of the most polluted seas on earth.
  老师手写内容:
  most      最;非常,极其;最多;几乎
  changeable   无常的;可改变的;易变的;不定的
  8)Vocabulary is the least stable part of any language.
  9)Black Americans are still more likely to die of cancer than whites.
  10)However, the risk of dying from cancer is much higher in developing countries.
  老师手写内容:
  than developed countries    与发达国家相比
  11)Male cigarette smokers have a higher death rate from heart disease than non-smoking males. Female smokers are thought to be less affected.
  老师手写内容:
  than non-smoking females    与不吸烟的女性相比
  12)In a number of countries people pay as much for water in their homes as they do for electricity.
  

数词


  数词的分类
  1.基数词
  表示数目的词称为基数词。其形式如下:
  A.从1——10
  one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight,nine,ten.
  B.从 11——19
  eleven,twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen,eighteen, nineteen.
  C.从 21——99
  除twenty,thirty, forty,fifty,eighty为特殊形式外,sixty,seventy,ninety都是其个位数形式后添加后缀-ty构成。
  21 twenty-one
  76 seventy-six

  D.百位数
  个数基数词形式加“hundred”,表示几百,在几十几与百位间加上and.
  101 a hundred and one
  320 three hundred and twenty
  648 six hundred and forty-eight
  E.千位数以上
  从数字的右端向左端数起,每三位数加一个逗号“,”。从右开始,第一个“,”前的数字后添加 thousand,第二个“,”前面的数字后添加 million,第三个“,”前的数字后添加 billion。然后一节一节分别表示,两个逗号之间最大的数为百位数形式。
  2,648 two thousand six, hundred and forty-eight
  16,250,064 sixteen million, two hundred and fifty thousand and sixty-four
  5,237,166,234 five billion, two hundred and thirty-seven million, one hundred and sixty-six thousand, two hundred and thirty-four

  F.基数词在表示确切的数字时,不能使用百、千、百万、十亿的复数形式;但当基数词表示不确切数字,如成百、成千上万、三三两两时,基数词则以复数形式出现。
  There are hundreds of people in the hall.
  Thousands and thousands of people come to visit the Museum of Qin Terra-Cotta Warriors and Horses every day.
  They went to the theatre in twos and threes.
  G.表示人的不确切岁数或年代,用几十的复数形式表示。
  He became a professor in his thirties.
  She died of lung cancer in forties.
  It was in the 1960s.
  H.基数词的句法功能
  基数词在句中可作主语、宾语、定语、表语、同位语。
  The two happily opened the box.
  I need three altogether.
  Four students are playing volleyball outside.
  We are sixteen.
  They three tried to finish the task before sunset.
  

  2.序数词
  表示顺序的词称为序数词。序数词的主要形式:
  A.从第一至第十九
  其中,one— first, two— second, three— third, five— fifth,eight—eighth,nine—ninth,twelve—twelfth为特殊形式,其它的序数词都是由其相对应的基数词后面添加“th”构成。例如: six— sixth、nineteen—nineteenth.
  B.从第二十至第九十九
  整数第几十的形式由其对应的基数词改变结尾字母y为i,再加“eth”构成。
  twenty——twentieth thirty——thirtieth
  表示第几十几时,用几十的基数词形式加上连字符“-”和个位序数词形式一起表示。
  thirty-first
  fifty-sixth
  seventy-third
  ninety-ninth

  C.第一百以上的多位序数词
  由基数词的形式变结尾部分为序数词形式来表示。
  one hundred and twenty-first
  one thousand, three hundred and twentieth
  D.序数词的缩写形式
  有时,序数词可以用缩写形式来表示。主要缩写形式有。
  first——lst second——2nd third——3rd
  fourth——4th sixth——6th twentieth——20th
  twenty-third——23rd

  E.序数词的句法功能
  序数词在句中可作主语、宾语、定语和表语。
  The second is what I really need.
  He chose the second.
  We are to carry out the first plan.
  She is the second in our class.
  注:序数词在使用时,通常前面要加定冠词 the;但是如果序数词前出现不定冠词a或an时,则表示“再……”,“又……”。
  We’ll go over it a second time.
  We’ve tried it three times.Must we try it a fourth time?

  时刻表示法
  five o’clock 或 five
  five past seven
  half past six
  a quarter past eight
  seven past eight
  ten to eight
  a quarter to twelve
  twenty to six
  在日常生活中,常用下列简单方法表示时间。
  six thirty-one
  ten twenty-six
  fourteen o three
  sixteen fifteen
  eighteen thirty
  twenty-three fifty-five
  注:时刻表上的时间大多采用24小时表示法,这样就不需要用a.m.表示上午,p.m.表示下午了。

  年月表示法
  1.世纪
  the sixth(6th)century
  the eighteenth(18th)century
  the 1900s
  the 1600s
  2.年代
  in the 1930s
  in the 1860s
  In the 1870s when Marx was already in his fifties, he found it important to study the situation in Russia, so he began to learn Russian.

  3. 表示某年代的早期、中期和晚期,可以在定冠词后,年代前添加 early,mid-,late
  in the early 1920s
  in the mid-1950s
  4.年月日表示法
  January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
  On Oct. 15, 1949
  In Dec. 1902

  分数表示法
  1.分数是由基数词和序数词一起来表示的。基数词作分子,序数词作分母,分子超过“1”,分母加s。
  3/4 three fourths或 three quarters
  1/3 one third或a third
  24/25 twenty-four twenty-fifths
  3 1/4 three and one fourth或 three and one quarter
  1/2 a half
  1/4 one quarter或a quarter
  1 1/2 one and a half
  1 1/4 one and a quarter

  小数表示法
  0.4 zero point four或point four
  10.23 ten point two three
  25.67 twenty-five point six seven
  1.03 one point o three
  百分数表示法
  百分数用基数+percent表示
  50% fifty percent 
  3% three percent 
  0.12% zero point one two percent
  

介词


  介词是虚词。
  1.介词的种类
  (1)简单介词
  on,in,with,by,for,about等
  (2)合成介词
  into,out of,as for,without等
  (3)短语介词
  by means of,because of,according to,in respect of,in contrast with,in spite of
  (4)分词介词
  including,concerning,considering,regarding,provided,given

  2.介词短语
  介词不能单独作句子成分,只能与名词、代词、动名词、数词、从句等一起构成介词短语充当句子成分。
  (1)介词+名词
  Aluminum and zinc can easily combine with the oxygen in the air.
  (2)介词+代词
  How much luggage can I take with me?
  (3)介词+动名词
  You learn to speak English by speaking it.
  (4)介词+数词
  Everything divides into two.
  (5)介词+另一个介词短语
  The air was removed from between the two pipes.

  (6)介词+形容词或副词
  It is far from satisfactory.
  We have made some progress,but it is far from enough.
  The door suddenly opened from within.
  (7)介词十不定式
  The airplane is about to take off.
  (8)介词十分词
  I consider the problem as settled.
  (9)介词+从句
  Liquids are different from solids in that liquids have no definite shape.

  3.介词的用法
  (1)作状语
  According to molecular theory,all matter is made up of small particles called molecules.
  (2)作定语
  These are movies and videotapes in foreign languages.
  Claims beyond the responsibilities of the suppliers can not be entertained.
  (3)作表语
  The result is beyond expectation.
  (4)作主补和宾补
  Petroleum is considered of great value.
  A force may set the ball in motion.
  

with复合结构


  with复合结构由with+名词+分词(形容词,不定式,名词,副词+介词短语)构成。
  with复合结构用来作定语和状语。作状语的with复合结构表示时间,原因,条件,方式以及伴随情况等。如:
  Is that the house with the policeman standing outside?
  She put a piece of paper with her name and address on it into a bottle.
  One of the fluids flows through the outside pipe, the other through the inside pipe, with heat exchange taking place through the wall.

  With the weather as close as this, ten to one it will rain presently.
  They work with the lamp lighted.
  In gases, the particles are far apart, with empty space in between.
  With our foreign trade expanding at such a tempo, the question is indeed to find enough hands to fill the jobs.
  He worked from morning till night, with little to eat and only a tiny place to live in.
  Even with conditions unfavorable, they would succeed.

  职称英语主要测试点举例:
  1)A little child without knowledge or experience often succeeds in a complete mastery of the language.
  2)For convenience, we may classify the speakers into two groups.
  3)By now you have sat with your legs crossed, with your hands in your lap, with your hands on the arm rests — even with your hands crossed behind your head.
  4)A youngster with a learning disability can find his or her own level without being separated from the other pupils.
  5)Several factors in the environment affect the shape and growth rate of a snow crystal.

  6)With the help of the government and general public, the Trust has been able to make accessible to the public about one hundred and fifty of these old houses.
  7)With increased tourism, it is getting worse.
  8)It is true that manufacturing jobs have declined, with many of them going to foreign counties.
  9)The Netherlands, with 16 million people crowded into a country twice the size of Slovenia, is the most densely populated in Europe.
  10)Events outside the plant and animal affect the actions of some biological clocks.




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